Тема: Московские музеи и галереи
Moscow is a cultural capital of Russia. It is famous for its museums, galleries, monuments and churches. All these attract a lot of tourists to Moscow. The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the ancient centre of Moscow. Today it is a museum. It is situated on Borovitsky Hill on the left bank of the Moskva River and considered one of the most beautiful architectural ensembles in the world. In 1156 the Kremlin was fortified with ramparts and in 1367 white stone towers and walls were erected. Brick buildings were added between 1485 and 1495. The Moscow Kremlin contains fine examples of Russian architecture of the 15 th to 17th centuries: the Cathedrals of the Assumption, the Annunciation and the Archangel, Ivan the Great's Bell Tower, the Faceted Palace, the Terem Palace, the Senate Building, the Large Kremlin Palace and the Armoury. The State Kremlin Palace was built between 1959 and 1961. There are 20 Kremlin towers and the most notable are the Spasskaya Tower where one can see the Kremlin clock, the Nikolskaya, the Trinity and the Borovitskaya Towers. The Tsar Cannon (16th century) and the Tsar Bell (18th century) are remarkable achievements of Russian cast ironwork. The President of the Russian Federation has his residence in the Kremlin.
The Armoury was first intended as an arms and armour workshop attached to the royal court. Jewellers and icon-painters came here later. The work of the Kremlin masters ceased under Peter the Great, and the Kremlin Armoury became a royal treasure in the 18th century. A new building was constructed in 1844—51. The Armoury was the first museum in Moscow. The Diamond Fund was added to the Armoury later. This exhibition displays unique state treasures, including a large imperial crown of gold, silver, diamonds and pearls made for the coronation of Catherine the Great, the huge, world-famous Orlov and Shah diamonds, and the Big Bouquet — a magnificent piece of jewellery set with diamonds and emeralds (18th century). The exhibition also features a collection of Yakut diamonds and masterpieces by modern jewellers.
Victory Park on Poklonnaya Hill is the Memorial to the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. There is a museum, monumental sculptures, open-air displays and the churches. The memorial was built on the highest point of Poklonnaya Hill in Victory Park. The museum is the central feature. The Church of St. George the Victor, the patron saint of Moscow, stands to the left of the central pathway. There is an exhibition of military hardware dating to the Second World War in the park.
The Polytechnical Museum was opened in 1872 on the initiative of Moscow University scientists. The modern building was erected in 1875 — 1907. The museum was a transmitter of scientific knowledge and technological achievements. After the 1917 Revolution public debates as well as poetry readings were held there. In the 1960s the performances in the Polytechnical Museum of the famous Soviet poets enjoyed great popularity.
The Central Museum of Armed Forces was opened in the GUM building. In 1921 it was transformed into the Museum of the Red Army and Navy, which in 1928 was located in the House of the Red Army (now the House of the Russian Army). There are 24 halls in the museum. More than 8,000 exhibits are displayed over an area of 5,000 square metres. Among those are the famous T-34 tank, banners of the defeated fascist Germany, documents and photographs.
There are some museums in Moscow which are connected with biology and zoology. They are the Biology Museum, Darwin Museum and Zoological Museum. They attract a lot of children and adults.
There are a lot of museums connected with the famous Russian writers, poets, composers, artists and actors. They also attract a lot of public.
And, of course, there are famous art galleries in Moscow, which are well-known all over the world. They are the State Tretyakov Gallery and the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. The State Tretyakov Gallery is a treasure house of Russian fine art, with its masterpieces. It was founded in 1856 by Pavel Tretyakov. In 1892 Tretyakov donated his collection (1,287 paintings, 518 drawings and 9 sculptures) to the city of Moscow. Now the gallery owns 100 thousand works of art. The Tretyakov mansion is a magnificent building with its own church and the bell tower dedicated to St. Nicholas. We can see paintings of outstanding Russian artists such as Repin, Vasnetsov, Shishkin, Surikov, Benua, Korovin, etc., in the Tretyakov Gallery.
The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts was founded by Ivan Tsvetayev, a professor of Moscow University and a father of the famous poet Marina Tsvetayeva. The original collection consisted of copies of classical and ancient original art. The superb exhibition ofWestern European paintings appeared later. The nearby Museum of Private Collections was opened in 1993.
Of course, it's impossible to tell you about all museums and galleries in Moscow. You should just believe that Moscow and its citizens are proud of their museums and galleries.